Medieval India

Great Kings of Sangama Dynasty of Vijaynagar Empire I Sangama Empire

Sangama Dynasty

Sangama Dyansty was one of the greatest dynasties of Vijaynaga Empire. This article briefly covers important Sangama rulers such as Harihara-I, Bukka-I, Harihara-II, Deva Raya-I and Deva Raya-II.

Sangama Dynasty was founded by Harihara I and his brother Bukka Raya I.

Harihara-I and Bukka-I: Of the five sons of Sangama, Harihara Raya I and Bukka Raya I had the chief share in the founding of the kingdom of Vijayanagar and they are generally counted as its first two kings. They however, did not assume full imperial tittles.

Bukka Raya I sent as embassy to the court of Chinese Emperor in 1374. The overthrow of the Sultanate of Madura by his son Kumara Kampana was one of the most notable events if his reign. Most of Bukka’s life was spent in waging constant warfare against the Bahmani Sultan Muhammad Shah-I and his successor Mujahid Shah. He died in 1379.

Harihara-II: Harihara II was the son and successor of Bukka I. Harihara II was the first king of Vijayanagar to assume all the imperial titles such as Maharajadhiraj, Rajaparameswara, etc. Harihara II was a warrior king and his reign saw the conquest of the whole of Southern India including Mysore, Kanara, Trichinopoly and Conjeeverum (Kanchi). He fought against Firuz Shah Bahmani in order to capture the Raichur Doab but was defeated and had to pay heavy indemnity. He was a worshipper of ‘Siva’ but he tolerated all forms of religion.

Deva Raya-I: His death of followed by two years of dispute among his sons for succession and eventually one of them Deva Raya I became king in 1406. Immediately after his accession Firuz Shah mercilessly ravaged the Vijayanagar territory And Deva Raya had to purchase peace by giving his daughter in marriage to the Sultan. But this marriage did not ensure peace and Firuz continued to create troubles. At last Deva Raya retailed by capturing Paungal and in flicking a severe defeat upon Firuz in 1419. He died in 1422 and was succeeded by his grandson Deva Raya II who was perhaps the greatest ruler of the line of Bukka (Sangama dynasty).

Deva Raya-II: In his reign the Vijayanagar Empire extended to the most distant South and touched the shores of Ceylon. The Bahmani Sultan, Ahmed shah, ravaged his territory in retaliation for Firuz’s defeat and inflicted great sufferings upon the people. This led Deva Raya II to reorganize the army and to strengthen it by enlisting Muslim recruits. He appointed an officer to look after overseas commerce. It was during his reign that the Persian ambassador, Abdur Razzak visited Vijayanagar and was struck with admiration by its grandeur and prosperity. He died in 1446 and was succeeded by his son Malikarsna who proved himself to be strong rulers. He repulsed an combined attack made upon Vijayanagar by the joint forces of the Bahmani Sultan and the Hindu king of Orissa. He kept his kingdom intact with toll his death in 1465.